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This is the relationship of two audio signals with respect to time. In Phase audio signals will reinforce each other, when summed. Out Of Phase audio signals will result in cancellation when summed. See the description of Phase in the article by Ken Lanyon by following the link below.
Ping Pong (1)
Sometimes called ‘bouncing’ this is the process of freeing up tracks in a multi track recording by mixing several input racks down into either one (mono) or two (stereo) output tracks. This means that you can record over the original tracks, freeing them for further parts.
Doing this too many times, in the analogue domain, can introduce a degradation in signal quality. The added problem is that the sub-mix used to create the bounced track(s) cannot be undone, so that mistakes in level or EQ in the submix will be present in the final mix.
Ping Pong (2)
A panning technique where a sound appears to move from one speaker to the other.
A Pop Filter is a cloth, foam or mesh placed over or between the source and a microphone. The Pop Filter reduces the ‘popping’ effect of plosive vocal sounds like ‘P’ or ‘B’. The term is also applied to electrinc filters that use a high pass filter, with a cutoff at approximately 70Hz to 100Hz, to remove unwanted pops.
Pre Fade Listen (PFL)
This is a circuit on a Mixing Desk that allows the monitoring of a channel, or channels, indepently of the main mix. In other words depressing the PFL button on a mixer will route the pre-fade signal of that channel directly to the monitor outputs. Be careful! Turn down your monitor level before you press the button! You have been warned…
Known as the Climb, Rise, Pre-Chorus, Channel, Prime, or Verse Extension, this specialist type of bridge differs melodically, harmonically, rhythmically and lyrically from the verse and the chorus. Additionally, instrumentation, arrangement and production can all shift up a gear to help effect the transformation.
This section is called:
- A Pre-Chorus because it comes before the chorus.
- A Climb, Rise or Lift as the level of emotion increases.
- A Build as it builds intensity.
- A Channel because it channels the listener from verse to Chorus.
- A Transitional Bridge because it IS a bridge between the verse section and the chorus section.
Not all songs include this section.
Musically, it often uses subdominant or a similar transitional harmony. If both the verse and chorus use the same harmonic structure, this section is used to introduce another harmonic pattern. This helps break up the sections using the same core harmony and keeps the chorus harmonies as fresh as possible.
Lyrically, this section has been used to introduce a pivotal idea, or concept that somehow links a verse and chorus. These sections tend to be quite short. Transitional Bridges sometimes change through the song, though often they retain some repetition from previous Transitional Bridges. This, yet again, helps to introduce the feeling of movement through a song.
This isn’t often used in current popular music, although it was briefly popular with the American West Coast “Surf Sound” writers of the 1960s. A pre-verse was a particular link section that was used as an interlude between the Introduction section and the first Verse section.
Pressure Gradient Microphone
This microphone responds to the difference in pressure (gradient) between the two sides of the microphone diaphragm. The pressure gradient microphone has a characteristic figure-of-eight polar pattern. Also known by the name “velocity microphone”.
To ‘Punch In’ or ‘Drop In’ is to start a new recording on a track that already has a recorded part on it. Punch Ins can be automated to start by setting record mode to start at a given time or musical bar. The opposite process, ‘Punch Out’ or ‘Drop Out’ occurs at the point where the recording has to stop.