D

DAC
See Digital to Analog Converter.

DAT
See Digital Audio Tape.

DAW

See Desktop Audio Workstation.

De-esser
An audio signal processing device that is used to remove excessive sibilance (The hissy ‘s’ sound heard on some vocal or speech recordings). Often this is a psecial form of compressor that uses an Equaliser as part of the detection circuit.

deciBel (dB)
This is the ratio of two signal levels where the relationship is governed by the equation:

dB = 20Log10(v1/v2)

dBu means that the ratio is measured relative to 0.775V RMS.

dBm means that the ratio is a measure of power. 0 dBm equals 1 milliwatt, or 0.775V across a 600 Ohm impedance.

dBV means that the ratio is a measure of voltage. 0 dBV equals 1 volt.

dB SPL means that the ratio is a measure of Sound Pressure Level. 0 dB SPL equals 0.0002 dynes/ square centimeter, or 20 micro-Pascals.

Deductions
Deductions, or discounts, are reductions in the effective royalty rate. The contracted royalty rate can be reduced due to music formats, other territories, etc. Deductions extend recoupment, and will push back the date when the label begins to pay the artist money.

Delivery
“Delivery” isn’t just the artist delivering the master recordings to their Record Label. What constitutes ‘delivery’ varies from contract to contract. Terms commonly include:

  • Format and standards to be used on the masters, and any manufacturing details
  • Conditional flexibility of Record contract terms relating to “delivery”
  • Paperwork, consents, approvals, permissions and licenses to be delivered together with the masters
  • That each master is subject to approval. Each must satisfy in technical and commercial terms
  • The location of delivery
  • Restrictions requiring written permission, such as:
    • instrumentals
    • joint recordings / collaborations
    • live recordings
    • themed recordings
    • multiple disc album (double albums, triple albums

Demo
This is a trial recording of a song or album. Such recordings are done as promotional recording to obtain work or a Music contract.

Demo Deal
Where the Record Label advances funds to an Artist to cover the costs of a number of demo recordings.

In return, the Record Label gets the right to negotiate an exclusive recording agreement with the artist before anyone else. This right is time-limited, it is not indefinite.

Even when the Record Label has exercised these rights, if they fail to reach an agreement, then the artist can begin negotiating a record deal with another Record Label.

The demo deal usually includes a “Matching Right”. This means that if the artist signs a Record Deal with another Record Label, then the artist will normally have to pay back the demo cost.

Derivative Work
A new work based on, or derived from, one or more pre-existing works.

Desktop Audio Workstation (DAW)

An electronic device or software program for recording, editing and arranging multiple input audio tracks with the purpose of applying effects and audio processing, mixing and producing, to create a combined audio output file.

Software DAWs commonly incorporate MIDI recording and sequencing.

Digipack
CD packaging, in a paper/card sleeve similar to a book, instead of a plastic CD case. The outside paper/card cover holds the CD inside in an attached plastic tray.

Digital Audio Tape (DAT)
This is a cassette-tape storage medium capable of storing digital audio information.

Digital Distribution
Distribution of music online, i.e. music downloads.

Digital Phonorecord Delivery
The “Digital Transmission” of a Phonorecord.

Digital Signal Processing (DSP)

Using a computer, or other electronic platform, to perform signal processing tasks. Data processed is a string of numbers that are digital representations, or samples, of contiguous continually changing signals, such as analog audio.

Digital Signal Processor (DSP)

A micropressor optimised for floating point calculations, commonly used for audio and graphics manipulation and communications technology, to carry out Digital Signal Processing tasks.

Digital To Analog Converter (DAC)
This is an electronic device that is used to convert digital audio signals into analog audio signals, or more generally to convert digital signals into analog signals.

Digital Transmission
Currently downloads and “streaming”. Recording agreements use broad definitions, allowing them to be covered for advances in technology or otherwise un-envisioned methods of transmission, formats and networks (known and unknown).

Direct-to-fan
Direct sales to fans, cutting out any middlemen. Products include CDs or T-shirts and other merch sold at a gig, to mail order CDs sold by the band.

Direct Current (DC)
This is an electrical signal whose polarity is fixed and whose amplitude remains constant with respect to time.

Direct Injection (DI) Box
This is a box that allows the direct connection of an electrical Musical instrument to the input of a Mixing Desk, as opposed to amplifying the instrument and recording the output with a Microphone.

Direct Output
This is a post-fade output from a Mixing Desk input channel. Direct Outs are commonly used for sending the signal to individual tape tracks during recording.

Discounted Records
Physical Records sold by a Distributor as part of a sales incentive program. Such Records are priced below the normal published wholesale price.

Distortion
Often unwanted change in an audio signal that results in the presence of frequencies in the output signal that were not present in the original signal. There are several types of distortion, including:

    • Electronic Distortion
      • Amplitude Distortion
      • Harmonic Distortion
      • Frequency Response Distortion
      • Phase Distortion
      • Group Delay Distortion
    • Audio Distortion
      • Any kind of deformation of a waveform. This includes:
      • clipping
      • harmonic distortion
      • intermodulation distortion, a mixing issue caused by electronic components behaving in a non-linear way, and limitations of the power supplies. Such non-linear audio distortion includes:
        • crossover distortion
        • slew-Induced Distortion (SID)
        • transient intermodulation (TIM).

      In music, distortion is often used as an intentional effect. This is especially true with electric guitars, deliberately distorting the sound of the guitar using a distortion pedal or an overdrive pedal, or when using distortion synthesis on a keyboard. It is a very popular effect in blues rock, heavy rock, metal and punk genres.

      Other forms of audio distortion that may be referred to as types of distortion:

      • frequency response
      • compression
      • modulation
      • aliasing
      • quantization noise
      • wow
      • flutter
    • The human ear cannot detect phase distortion, apart from when it affects stereo imaging.
    • Outside of electronics, distortion can occur due to acoustic coupling with speaker enclosures or other connected structures, or acoustic coupling between any sound source and the environment around the sound source.

Distribution
Physical – Shipping CDs, or other physical recordings, from record labels to retailers. In addition to transporting boxes of CDs, Distributors also promote their catalogue to retailers.
Digital – Digital distribution means transferring electronic files. Normally this is the online version of traditional music or video distribution using downloads or streams instead of physical product. See also aggregator.

Publishing – In the realm of royalty collection, “distribution” is the regular payments made to writers, artists and other society members. Distribution is commonly once every three or six months.

Distribution Agreement
A distribution agreement is normally an agreement with a Distributor. The artist (or Licensor) is responsible for all manufacturing and distribution costs. Sometimes the Distributor will cover the costs as a loan.Distributors are entitled to a fee in return for distribution. This is normally between 15% and 20% of the wholesale receipts for the artist / licensor’s Records. The Licensor retains ownership of the RecordsIf, in addition to distributing the product, the Distributor is expected to manufacture Physical Records, then the agreement is referred to as a “Pressing and Distribution Agreement” or a “P&D Agreement”. Distributors are often granted the right for distribution by Digital Transmission, but not always.Distribution Agreements are usually limited by time and territory. For example, “within the United States and Canada for four to five years”.Sometimes, some recording agreements will be called a “distribution agreement.” With a proper recording agreement, artists aren’t usually responsible for any manufacturing or distribution costs. Nor are they normally responsible for the payment of Mechanical Royalties or union payments based on Record sales / Net Receipts. Such costs cannot be recouped from Artist Royalties.Artists are paid a royalty based on the SRLP or PPD of their Records.

For example Imagine the wholesale price of an album is $10.00.

Distribution Agreement

15% distribution fee $1.50

The Licensor would be entitled to $8.50 per album sold minus distribution related deductions:

  • Manufacturing
  • Distribution
  • Retail / Co-op advertising
  • Others
    Third party costs:

    • Artist Royalties (if the artist is not the Licensor)
    • Producers Royalty
    • Mixer Royalty
    • Mechanical Royalties
    • Net Receipts (see Union Payments).
    • Independent Promotion
    • Marketing
    • Tour Support
    • Video costs
    • Net earnings by the Licensor could be 50% of the monies initially paid by the Distributor to the Licensor ($4.25 in above example).

Recording Agreement

Artist Royalty – 16% of the PPD.

i.e. Artist Royalty of $1.60 per album (i.e., 16% of $10.00)

Recoupment of costs to the Record Label incurred on behalf of the artist, including:

  • Recording
  • Mastering
  • Artist Development
  • Photography
  • Artwork
  • All Or Part Of Tour Support
  • Independent Promotion
  • Independent Marketing
  • Video Costs

Distributor
Distributors are both Branch Distributors run by EMI, Sony Music, Universal or Warner Bros. and Independent Distributors.

DIY
Do It Yourself refers to creating, distributing and selling your own recordings, and sometimes publishing your own music too, without involving a 3rd party as a record label or music publisher.

DMCA
DMCA is an abbreviation for the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

Public performance rights in digital audio transmissions were first granted by the US Congress in 1995. Before that sound recordings had no pubic performance rights.

The DMCA amended these public performance rights in 1998, to cover compulsory licensing for digital audio transmissions using non-interactive websites. For example Internet Radio and Music Streaming services. (See both Mechanical Royalties and SoundExchange.)

Double Commission
Relates to a contract clause that stops collection of more than one commission for the same income.

An example would be where an artist has multiple contracts with an agent. A Double Commission clause would stop the agent from collecting a commission relating to every agreement they had with the artist, for an individual payment.

Downloads
A download is the Digital Transmission of a recording where a permanent copy of the recording is created, where the copy can be played by the listener at a later time.

A tethered download is a download that can only be played on a limited number of playback devices.

A limited download is a download that becomes inaccessible by the listener after either a specified period of time, or a specified number of plays.

Draw
The audience numbers an act can get to attend a performance.

DRM
Digital Rights Management is a type of copy-protection, implemented in either hardware or software. DRM ensures users comply with conditions set by the copyright owners.

Drum Head
Material used to cover the shell of a drum. If struck with a stick or mallet this material will create a tone. Can be made from a number of natural or synthetic fiberous materials.

Drum Key
Tool used in the tuning of a drum. The key is commonly a “T” shape and fits over the top of a lug that runs through the top or bottom rim of a drum shell. By tighting the lug on a drum head the pitch can be raised or lowered.

Drum Stick
Object used to strike a drum. Usually made of wood or synthetic material. Most will have a wooden or nylon tip.

DSP

(1) See Digital Signal Processing

(2) See Digital Signal Processor

Dub Plate
An acetate disc, often cut from a tape master, intended to be metal-plated and used in the manufacture of vinyl records. Dub plates can be played on a record player as a demo but they are not intended for this. They are too easily damaged and don’t last long.

Dubbing License

A master copy license for recording or phonographic use. It is not a mechanical copy license as used in music publishing.

Duplication
Standard CDs are manufactured by replication, also called ‘pressing’. However, some CD manufacturers duplicate discs by burning audio data to CD-Rs. These duplicated copies are cheaper than replicated CDs, and much less reliable.

Dynamic Microphone
This kind of Microphone converts acoustic energy to electrical energy by using a moving coil and a permanent magnet. This kind of microphone does not require any external power to be applied.

Distribution has really changed. You can make a record with a laptop in the morning and have it up on YouTube in the afternoon and be a star overnight. The talent on YouTube is incredible, and it can spread like wildfire. The downside is that it's very hard to convince the younger generation that they should pay for music.”
Bonnie Raitt